Clinical Groupings for Fungal Infections
The following clinical groupings may be recognized:
These are superficial cosmetic fungal infections of the skin or hair shaft. No living tissue is invaded and there is no cellular response from the host. Essentially no pathological changes are elicited. These infections are often so innocuous that patients are often unaware of their condition.
including Dandruff and
| Malassezia spp.
(a lipophilic yeast)
|Tinea nigra||Hortaea werneckii||Rare|
|White piedra||Trichosporon spp.||Common|
|Black piedra||Piedraia hortae||Rare|
These are superficial fungal infections of the skin, hair or nails. No living tissue is invaded, however a variety of pathological changes occur in the host because of the presence of the infectious agent and its metabolic products.
Ringworm of the scalp,
glabrous skin and nails.
|Dermatophytes (Arthroderma, Lophophyton, Microsporum, Nannizzia, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton)||Common|
|Candidiasis of skin,
|Candida, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces,Meyerozyma, Pichia, etc.||Common|
These are chronic, localized infections of the skin and subcutaneous tissue following the traumatic implantation of the aetiologic agent. The causative fungi are all soil saprophytes of regional epidemiology whose ability to adapt to the tissue environment and elicit disease is extremely variable.
|Chromoblastomycosis|| Fonsecaea, Phialophora,
Bipolaris, Exserohilum etc
|Mycotic mycetoma|| Scedosporium, Madurella,
Trematosphaeria, Acremonium, Exophiala etc.
| Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor,
Lichtheimia, Saksenaea etc.
These are fungal infections of the body caused by dimorphic fungal pathogens which can overcome the physiological and cellular defences of the normal human host by changing their morphological form. They are geographically restricted and the primary site of infection is usually pulmonary, following the inhalation of conidia.
These are fungal infections of the body which occur almost exclusively in debilitated patients whose normal defence mechanisms are impaired. The organisms involved are cosmopolitan fungi which have a very low inherent virulence. The increased incidence of these infections and the diversity of fungi causing them, has parallelled the emergence of AIDS, more aggressive cancer and post-transplantation chemotherapy and the use of antibiotics, cytotoxins, immunosuppressives, corticosteroids and other macro disruptive procedures that result in lowered resistance of the host.
|Candidiasis||Candida, Debaryomyces, Kluyveromyces,Meyerozyma, Pichia, etc.||Common|
|Aspergillosis||Aspergillus fumigatus etc.||Rare|
|Rhizopus, Mucor, Rhizomucor,
|Phaeohyphomycosis||Cladophialophora, Exophiala, Bipolaris, Exserohilum etc.||Rare|
Disclaimer: The National Mycology Reference Centre does not provide patient consultations or referrals. Individuals with concerns about fungal infection should seek advice from a registered healthcare professional. Information is provided for education and scientific purposes only and is not intended to replace advice from a registered healthcare professional. Information about a service, product or treatment does not imply endorsement.