The genus Madurella was originally based on tissue morphology (mycetoma with black grains) and the formation of sterile cultures on mycological media. Initially two species were described, M. mycetomatis and M. grisea. However recent molecular studies have recognised five species: Madurella mycetomatis, Trematosphaeria grisea (formerly M. grisea), M. fahalii, M. pseudomycetomatis and M. tropicana (Desnos-Ollivier et al. 2006, de Hoog et al. 2004a, 2012). All species have been isolated from soil and are major causative agents of mycetoma.
Molecular Identification: ITS sequencing is recommended for species separation (Ahmed et al. 2014b, Desnos-Olliver et al. 2006, Irinyi et al. 2015). A five locus phylogenetic analysis was performed by Ahmed et al. (2014a) using the ITS, D1/D2, RPB2 and EF-1α genes.