Xylohypha bantiana (Saccardo) McGinnis, Borelli and Ajello.
Cladosporium bantianum (Sacc.) Borelli.
Cladosporium trichoides Emmons.
Cladophialophora bantiana has been isolated from soil and is a recognised agent of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. The fungus is neurotropic and may cause brain abscess in both normal and immunosuppressed patients and is usually fatal. The fungus is likely introduced via inhalation and direct transfer to the brain via the paranasal sinuses, or traumatic head injury.
WARNING: RG-3 organism. Cultures of C. bantiana represent a potential biohazard to laboratory personnel and must be handled with extreme caution in Class II Biological Safety Cabinet (BSCII).
Morphological Description: Colonies are moderately fast growing, olivaceous-grey, suede-like to floccose and grow at temperatures up to 42-4OC. Conidia are formed in long, sparsely branched, flexuose, acropetal chains from undifferentiated conidiophores. Conidia are one-celled (very occasionally two-celled), pale brown, smooth-walled, ellipsoid to oblong-ellipsoid and are 2-3 x 4-7 µm in size.
C. bantiana may be distinguished from Cladosporium species by the absence of conidia with distinctly pigmented hila, the absence of shield cells and by growth at >40C (compared with C. carrionii which has a maximum growth temperature of 35-37C, and Cladosporium species which have a maximum of <35C). C. bantiana may be further distinguished from C. carrionii by the formation of very long, sparsely branched chains of conidia.
Molecular Identification: ITS sequencing is recommended (Gerrits van den Ende and de Hoog, 1999; Badali et al. 2010).
References: McGinnis (1980), McGinnis and Borelli (1981), McGinnis et al. (1986a), Rippon (1988), Kwon-Chung and Bennett (1992), de Hoog et al. (2000, 2015), Chakrabarti et al. (2016).
Cladophialophora bantiana culture.
Cladophialophora bantiana conidiophore and conidia.